Photo © Robert J. Baker

Dealing with Predators

What to do about Predators

Although nest boxes provide nesting opportunities for many native birds, they also can make easy targets for predators. Common predators of nests in nest boxes include raccoons, cats, snakes, and squirrels. Here are some tips to help you thwart these common nest box predators.

The most passive way to prevent predation is to avoid placing nest boxes in areas where predators are prevalent. But, because some predators are prevalent everywhere, you should always protect your nest boxes with predator guards.

Raccoons and Domestic Cats

Raccoons and cats are abundant in both rural and suburban areas. Raccoons are especially difficult to deter because they are very intelligent. Once they learn that nest boxes are good sources of food, these nocturnal creatures have been known to destroy nests in entire groups of boxes. Similarly, cats can quickly learn that nest boxes can be the source of an easy meal. When raiding nest boxes, both raccoons and cats will leap to the top of a box, sit on the roof, and “dip” into the entrance hole with their front paws to grab the eggs or young birds inside.

Ways to prevent raccoons and cats from raiding your boxes:

  • Installing a roof that extends five inches beyond the front of the box will prevent these animals from easily reaching into the entrance hole from above.
  • Mount your box high enough and away from trees so cats cannot spring to the top of the box in a single leap.
  • Attach predator guards to your boxes to prevent these animals from climbing up from below. Three commonly used guards are shown below.
  • Keep domestic cats indoors.
The Unwelcome Guest
The Unwelcome Guest


Snakes are a common predator of eggs and nestlings, especially in southern states. A conical metal collar mounted below the box will prevent most snakes from climbing up from below, but very large snakes can occasionally circumvent these barriers. In this case, it is helpful to have a Noel predator guard installed as a backup. Also, nest boxes should be placed away from trees to prevent snakes from accessing them from overhead branches.


In some regions, squirrels do great damage to nest boxes. By chewing at entrance holes to enlarge them, they make it easier for themselves and other predators to enter. If squirrels are common in your area, simply cut a hole the same size as the nest box entrance hole in a rectangular piece of sheet metal and attach it to the front of the nest box so that both holes line up.

Stovepipe Baffle
Stovepipe Baffle

Plans for Predator Guards

Stovepipe baffle
This device is made from a piece of stovepipe or PVC pipe that encircles the nest-box pole. It is held in place by hardware cloth and straps.

Noel Guard
Noel Guard

Noel predator guard
The Noel guard is a rectangular tube of hardware cloth stapled to the front of the nest box. This will make it difficult for predators to reach into the box entrance hole; however, the nest-box occupants can easily come and go.

Even Ospreys Need Protection From Predators
Even Ospreys Need Protection From Predators

Conical metal predator guard or collar
This guard works well for boxes that are attached to free-standing poles. The collar is a made from a circular piece of galvanized sheet metal that is placed around the pole underneath the nest box.